Analyse how the interaction between a hero and a villain reinforced or challenged your ideas about justice in the visual text.

As child we are only taught to see in black and white, good or bad. However as we know having grown up in such an advanced world, nothing is simple as that. ‘Crash’ reinforced my belief that the world is as corrupt and judgement as it ever was, yet it also challenged my tendency to judge a book by its cover so to say. In this case, the villain becomes the hero through his rocky personal journey. Officer John Ryan battles with struggles in his dad’s unpredictable health care system and long shifts on the job. All of this came together to form his journey which we follow through the movie and which challenges me while enforcing my initial ideas. 

Bad – BP1. When you hear the words Sexual Assault what comes to mind? When Officer Ryan sexually assaulted Christina Thayer on the sidewalk of a gloomy street in LA, many events were set in motion and the first thoughts of disgusting and bad, would be moved aside when we later find out the extent of the effects his actions had on Christina’s Life. Officer Ryan sparked a chain of events which ultimately led to a life threatening crash, and a lifetime of pain. The law enforcement is at the pinnacle of societal justice and are employed to enforce the restraint of crimes such as this. Yet in this instance it has granted the power for an evil man to be charge of his own offences and inflict pain on others from his position. The childhood belief in good and bad begins to fade as we enter the real the world and Officer Ryan is a symbol of a pure contrast between what is seen as good but bad lays just beneath the surface. This could be seen as an Allegory to the justice system, the soul influencer on the fate of billions of people, which is seen as the ultimate good yet corruption and illegitimate dealings lie so very close to the surface. 

Good – BP2. Officer John Ryan has battled with his father’s health care for years, and lose everything when the Black’s gained advantage through the new laws. His life had recently been ruled by loss and hardship and although this does not in anyway justify his actions but it gives a background to his actions. Having to deal with a racist and corrupt police force through his career he passes a sentiment of know ledge down to his young partner, “You think you know who you are? [Officer Hanson nods] You have no idea.” The world twists, chews and spits us out but it is how you recover that shows the true character. John Ryan, despite Christina screaming and swinging at him, he persists and saves her from her ticking time bombing, the burning gas tank above her. He dives back into the car after being pulled out, never giving up the slight chance he could save the life of  a woman who could ruin his own life. His journey from villain to hero from his true character yet as we leave him, he is shown from a low angle, with light beaming from behind him symbolizing a hero but his face telling a story of inner turmoil. Justice has been served to Christina but at what cost? Officer Ryan challenged me to see the best in people and the best in the justice system, a hope to believe that the ones that enforce the justice in our world can bring the best out in themselves and become the Hero. 

Challenge and Reinforce – BP3. My decision of the true character of John Ryan was continually challenging and reinforcing my view of the Justice System of today. On one hand, the initial experience of meeting John Ryan in a heated call, and then following him to a scene of sexual assault that he committed and came away clean from was too much. This confirmed all of my inner belief that the world is lead and controlled by corrupt people, and the justice system serves nothing but injustice to its citizens. Although, as the story line progressed and the light shone down on John Ryan as he became a hero, he also began to challenge me. The constant protrial of his heroism through the high lighting and low angles, showed a different side of John Ryan which got me thinking about the good side of people. If the world constantly assumes the worse, it will create the worst. 


Analyse how a character or narrator’s fate was used to reinforce one or more themes in the visual text.

Everyday the world wakes and goes about their time, preforming actions which causes small ripples across society. We never really stop to consider the extent of the effects of our small, seemingly insignificant daily actions. The inability to consider this, has crafted an ignorant and alienated society. Paul Haggis, the director of the polarising visual text Crash, challenged his viewers by directing his character, Farhad, into bad fate as a result of others effecting her more significantly than they ever considered. The strong overhanging theme that Haggis believed that everybody’s lives are intertwined further enforced this.

BP 1 – The shop door break and break in.

BP 2 – His attempted murder of Daniel Ruiz’s Daughter, Lara. 

BP 3 – The racism and separation in LA.

BP 1 – Farhad only appears a selection of times throughout the movie but all appearances are influential in their own way. The scene with Daniel in his store is the set up for the series of events which occurs in the future. By fate, the two are brought together in Farhad’s shop over a broken door. A feeble argument breaks out among them and Farhad unleashes the bottled anger and pain from his own racial predicament on Daniel throwing racial insults at him. It is so ironic that despite Farhad knowing and feeling the pain of being discriminated, he continues to fuel the fire. The chain of mistreatment and discrimination runs through the world through the deep interconnection between our own lives with everyone elses and our actions become part of a larger scale more quickly than we could ever imagine. This small interaction was triggered into argument because of the past and will continue to affect the future as we see in the following scenes. 

BP 2 – A accumulation of anger and pain has lead Farhad down a dark path, to driveway of Daniel Ruiz’s home. A place he will never forget.

BP3 – It not a coincidence that the movie begins with Farhad being battered by derogative racial comments and identify being mistaken and disrespected. Farhad was confused with Arab terrorists despite being Persian, and was told to “plan a jihad on your own time.” This is was not accident by Haggis, the immediate confrontation of the immense racism which still evidently controls many grieving people in the wake of 9/11 is not avoided in the early stages of the movie. The magnitude of the effects following the actions of the humans behind the 9/11 attacks illustrates the theme explored by Haggis in Crash. Millions left distraught and shocked by the actions of a small group of people, a small group which shook the world. When scaled down to everyday life, we can imagine the spread of the effects of own actions. The racism and continual second class treatment from many people who likely did not think one then once about it, pushed Farhad into an attempt of murder. His fate was decide not by himself but the people around him who continually ruined his life. The people which he encountered did not know the full extent of their actions, but as the viewer we were able to follow and understand the effects they had on Farhad. 

Genesis and Catastrophe.

Genesis and Catastrophe.

Roald Dahl.

September 2018.

Short Story.

Roald Dahl is an author with the ability to create a story which however bizarre and unique it is, he is still able to create a love for his writing in his readers through his intelligent techniques and interesting relevance. This particular story is based on real events and is formed on a man’s beginning who many know little about despite knowing the name so well, Adolf Hitler. Dahl’s ability to command such strong feelings of sorrow and compassion for such an evil and hated man shows the extent to which he can expand his literary merits and the wonderful distinctness of his stories.

There are many distinctive features in the story, being the extensive use of dialogue, the use of outside knowledge to further engage the reader, and the overall plot twist. The short story is compiled mainly of dialogue, leaving the reader to decipher the deeper intentions of the words. Klara, the distressed mother who asks about the baby’s health so many times catches the reader’s feelings and due to her unfavourable past we feel deep sorrow and compassionate for her. Without Dahl’s selective choice of words we would not feel so deeply for her and his intention would not come through so throughly during the plot twist. With the abrupt reveal of the baby’s identity it is difficult to comprehend the full meaning of the revelation at first. Once it sets in as a reader I began to struggle with the flood of links and thoughts I had about Adolf Hitler and the immediate contrast to the thoughts I had about the innocent baby. As humans we are prone to judgement and negativity. The realisation that we as readers, can feel such sorrow for a terrible man brings us down to the roots of our humanity and really challenges our ability to disregard our prejudice defences and evaluate a person on account of their present being.

By the end I was left with mixed emotions as the harrowing short story disturbed and unsettled me. I wondered if Hitler was a product of his terrible upbringing, yet still struggled to feel any sympathy for such a man. While I did not particularly enjoy it, it gave me another insight into Dahl’s more unexplored writings as well as his character. Having grown up knowing and loving Roald Dahl’s playful and light-hearted humour in his children’s books, I went into this short story expecting something quite different to this dark and ominous piece. 

‘Crash’ background work.

2005, America is still reeling at the magnitude of the 9/11 attacks and racial debates were at an all time high. Middle eastern people were particularly suffering from the continuing discrimination on account of the terrorists  actions. In crash, the brutal racism can be seen towards Farhad, a Persian shopkeeper is the poster child for misplaced anger within the movie and helped to portray the aspect of anger and racial unsettlement at the time. 

Los Angeles is known for its ethnic diversity and being America’s 2nd largest populous city, millions of people all living in the sprawling metropolis of LA. Los Angeles, originally settled in and founded by Spanish, and won over in the Mexican war of Independence, evauntually being purchased by the US. 


First Thoughts.

  • Parallels and contrasts.
  • Talking about the racist whites of hollywood about the coffee and then the woman getting scared and then the proceed to steal the car.
  • Anthony always talking about stereotypes of blacks and then follows in his fellow footsteps.
  • Car headlights at the start. Car headlights in the middle indicating movement and fast pace.
  • Snow at the end, symbolism of peace and calm yet everyone’s lives turns upside.

Chris Haggis Interview.

  • The effect you can have on someone else life. Butterfly Effect. Directors Intention.
  • “We like to judge people” Paul Haggis
  • His aim was to polarize people, because when you polarize people you get them talking, and when they get talking it sparks a change.

Analyse how the use of language features shaped your response to one or more ideas in the visual or oral text. 

Idea of the butterfly effect showing the extensive effects of our actions through the use of Symbolism, Lighting, and Sound.

Quote Bank.


“Hey, Mr. Cunningham. don’t you remember me, Mr. Cunningham? I’m Jean Louise Finch. You brought us some hickory nuts one early morning, remember? We had a talk. I went and got my daddy to come out and thank you. I go to school with your boy. I go to school with Walter. He’s a nice boy. Tell him ‘hey’ for me, won’t you?” Scout, Outside the Jail. 

“Miss Jean Louise, stand up. Your father’s passin’.” Sykes, Courtroom.

“Atticus was right. One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on the Radley porch was enough.” Scout, Radley Porch.

“Atticus Finch is the same in his house as he is on the public streets.” Miss Maudie, Maudie’s porch.

“Negroes worshipped in it on Sundays, and white men gambled in it on weekdays.” Author.

“Naw, Jem, I think there’s just one kind of folks. Folks.” Scout, Jem’s Bedroom. 

“Don’t be silly, Jean Louise. The thing is, you can scrub Walter Cunningham till he shines, you can put him in shoes and new suit, but he’ll never be like Jem. Besides, there’s a drinking streak in that family a mile wide. Finch women aren’t interested in that sort of people.” Aunt Alexander, Finch’s home. 

“Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired old town when I first knew it…  There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County. But it was a time of vague optimism for some of the people: Maycomb County had recently been told that it had nothing to fear but fear itself.” Scout.

“You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view . . . until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” Atticus.

Atticus, he was real nice. . . .” His hands were under my chin, pulling up the cover, tucking it around me. “Most people are, Scout, when you finally see them. Scout – Atticus.

“Cry about the simple hell people give other people—without even thinking. Cry about the hell white people give coloured folks, without even stopping to think that they’re people, too.” Dolphus Raymond. 

“People generally see what they look for, and hear what they listen for, and they have the right to subject their children to it.” Judge Taylor.


“Look at me. You embarrass me. You embarrass yourself.” Cameron Thayer.

“You weren’t afraid that all your good friends at the studio were gonna read about you in the morning and realise he’s actually black?” Christine Thayer.

“I am angry all the time… and I don’t know why.” Jean Cabot.

“Wait ’till you’ve been on the job a few more years. Look at me […] Look at me. Wait ’till you’ve been doing it a little longer.” Officer Ryan.

“Yo, Osama, plan a jihad on your own time. What do you want?” Gun store owner.

Setting – TKAM.

“I think there’s just one kind of folks. Folks” This innocent view held by Scout Finch illustrates her pure, unchanged view on the people of her town which plays as as a complete contrast to that of the people’s views on each other. In the small town of Maycomb in 1930’s, the prejudice which runs through its veins controls the inhabitants and the direction of the novel. 

The Great Depression of the 1930’s is alluded to many times as it the backdrop of the novel. As a nation the U.S was dramatically effected by the depression, and the southern states were also living at the extreme loss of the time. Although Maycomb is a fictional town, the effects of the time period contributed to the setting and the prejudice within Lee’s creation. Scout narrates when discussing Atticus’s career that during the first five years of his practice in Maycomb, he “practiced economy more than anything”. Although the depression effected the wealth of the town as a whole, the social status’s remained intact and Jem describes to us the different families within Maycomb. “There’s four kinds of folks in the world. There’s the ordinary kind like us and the neighbours, theres the kind like the Cunninghams out in the woods, the kind like the Ewells at the dump, and the Negroes.” The dislike between “one kind of people… and another kind of people” is only intensified by the desperate times of the depression. It is interesting to note that although the Ewells and regarded as “trash”, the blacks are discriminated against due to the colour of their skin. In a time of strict Jim Crow laws, blacks were only just recovering from a life of slavery and the prejudice embedded in the town is justified by these racist laws. The southern states are particularly known for their racial involvement and violence towards black’s and Lee uses Maycomb’s physical setting as a device to intensify the racism. This is seen in the mob arriving at Tom’s cell with only dark intentions and the bias trial. 

The immediate prejudice is not only seen the historical pretence of the setting, but thought the interactions of the characters towards Boo Radley. Despite having very little factual evidence against Boo, the town is quick to assume his guilt which shows the reader the nature of the people and the embedded prejudice which controls them. Boo is described as a monster by Jem, “six and a half feet tall, he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch… a long jagged scar ran across his face and his teeth were yellow and rotten”. Although Jem describes Boo as the childhood monster of our nightmares, the older, more intelligent adults of the town also considered him “strange”. Very little is actually known about Boo’s nature until he is slowly revealed to us as the kind caring saviour of the children through his small acts of kindness, the gifts in the tree and sewing Jem’s pants, and set in concrete by his courage to defend the children from Ewell. The town is quick to judge Boo on the rumours which they have heard and Lee is establishing the nature of the society in the 30’s and the nature which still exists today. The setting of Maycomb is only a catalyst to the prejudice which surrounds Boo as the social hierarchy and racist Jim Crow laws implement a culture of prejudice.  

The setting of 1930’s Maycomb provides the ideal environment for prejudice to occur and thrive. The culture that has arisen from years of racism, slavery, social standings, and sexism creates a town in the Southern states of America where a man is wrongly convicted according to his race. Lee in writing the novel was telling the reader the problems the world faced and through symbols such as Boo Radley, connected her story to the world at time in need of desperate change. 

TKAM revision.

Analyse how the experiences of one or more characters were used for a particular purpose. 


Innocence and development. 


Highlight prejudice. 


Paragraph 1: Racism, Tom’s court case.

Paragraph 2: Sexism, Aunt Alexander treatment of Scout, her brother, “Aunt Alexander was fanatical on the subject of my attire”

Paragraph 3: Class prejudice, Walter.

Analyse the connection between the setting and one or more themes. 


Maycomb, Southern states of American in the 1930’s. Jim Crow laws, segregation.

Theme – Prejudice

Paragraph 1: Racism 

Paragraph 2: Class separation

Paragraph 3: Sexism 


Theme – Prejudice

Paragraph 1: Historical Maycomb itself

Paragraph 2: Social Sexist Racist

Paragraph 3: Physical, Town layout, segregation. 

Analyse how supposedly insignificant events or details revealed one or more significant themes. 

Boo Radley, shows how readers jump on the bandwagon to easily judge people. Lee used Boo as a underlying device to make a symbol of prejudice itself.


Events associated to him presented theme of prejudice.

Paragraph 1: Pants.

Paragraph 2: Fire and Blanket.

Paragraph 3: The gifts in the hole of the tree. 


Paragraph 1: Walter in class.

Paragraph 2: Dolphus Raymond.

Paragraph 3: Aunt Alexander’s tea party.

Analyse how one or more ideas in the text served as a warning to readers.

Setting: Maycomb 1930’s. Divison, Segregation, Multiple levels of prejudice. 

Warning: Highlight Lee’s intention of not judging to be free of prejudice.


BP1 – Town itself and social context of the 30’s.

BP2 – Court house.

BP3 – School.

To Kill A Mockingbird.

In the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, there are many ideas which give the reader insight into the lifestyle of the 1930s and of the ideas of racism and prejudice formed by the human nature of “being normal”. There is also the idea of change and social reform expressed through Atticus, who goes against the nature of the town and challenges the social boundaries. In this essay I intend to explain the links between these ideas to human nature and explore why Harper Lee chose to include these ideas in her novel.

Atticus is at the pinnacle of social reform and with his closing speech at the courtroom he presents the reader further insight into the depths of his determination for change. “This case is as simple as black and white” summises Atticus in his speech to the jury challenging them to consider their racial and moral values.  He asks them to choose black over white as the case “ requires no minute sifting of complicated facts” and the facts are undoubtedly pointing to the innocence of Tom Robinson. This blatant defiance of the unspoken racism in the community sets Atticus apart from his peers. For many, this paints a target on his back, an invitation for criticism or revenge in the case of Bob Ewell.  Despite this, many also respect his actions as “some men in this world… were born to do our unpleasant jobs”. Atticus’ actions create a spark of realisation that change is required as “he was the man who will do what’s right when the world is saying he is wrong” ( David Von Drehle).

Racism. Prejudice. Segregation. These three vices bind the black and coloured communities to a life of hardship and inequality and Lee choses to explore this idea in relation to the citizens of Maycomb. This idea has strong links to the human nature of following the crowd and the inability to go against the beliefs of our upbringing and surroundings. The basis of the novel is to show the people of the 30s the injustice that underpins and controls their society. It was an effort to plant the seed in their minds that one person who can navigate through the mist of discrimination can make a break in the outdated rituals and beliefs. Atticus Finch, represents the one needed to bring change into motion through his acts of selflessness and level-minded view of his broken community. This is seen when Scout approaches him asking if he really is a “nigger-lover”, “I certainly am. I do my best to love everybody” Atticus was quick to reply showing his liberal view on an equal society. As the book progresses we follow Jem as he transitions into manhood and as his body and mind changes, there is also notable change in his perception of racism. “Scout… you’re gettin’ more like a girl every day!” Jem comments with noticeable immaturity, yet chapters down the track he makes the insightful observation that “around here once you have a drop of Negro blood, that makes you all black.” Jem is able to take himself out of his skin and reflect on the small-minded attitudes of the citizens of Maycomb. Lee describes the book as a recreation of her childhood town and created a story which she hopes to motivate the readers to question their own ways and set off a chain reaction which would eventually result in the formation of more equal society.

Mockingbird, a symbol of innocence and purity which is subtly inwoven throughout the text with links to characters, Tom Robinson and Boo Radley as they share common ground in multiple ways. They both have been shadowed by a story which has ruined their lives despite their obvious qualities of goodwill. The symbolism of the mockingbird ties into the title “To Kill a MockingBird” which has a deeply literal connection to the main event of the novel, Tom Robinson’s trial and death. The representation of innocence through the Mockingbird characters shows these men of the jury are willing to kill innocence itself in the name of pride and status. In the novel, Atticus tells Jem and Scout that “it’s a sin to kill a Mockingbird” as “they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us”  and to kill a mockingbird is in essence to kill innocence and purity at its origin. The aspect of human nature which is linked to the symbol of the Mockingbird is basic innocence and purity. All humans begin as innocent and pure as each other and their upbringing and surroundings determine the person they become. These characters have tough and unforgiving upbringings and hard lives yet they still display the qualities of a Mockingbird, it is clear their human nature strongly determines their personality.

These main ideas help the reader and the book’s extended audience to develop an in-depth view of a small community in the 1930s and how it’s ideas of prejudice play such an influential role in the citizens’ lives, especially that of the black and coloured people. Lee uses her ideas of change and reform of her known society woven in with multiple aspects of human nature to create this powerful novel. To Kill a Mockingbird very effectively communicates Lee’s forward thinking beliefs which arguably instigates a new era of people which give deeper thought into their societies and ultimately has a role in the equal rights of the 21st century.

practice essay

  1. Describe an incident that changes the course of events in the written text(s). Explain how this change helped you to understand an important idea.

In the novel, Lord of the flies, by William Golding, the incident of Simons death and his conversation with the Pigs Head On The Stick, sparked the rapid spiral into savagery and altered the course of events for the rest of the novel. It also helped us to understand the idea of the role that structure and civilization plays in the world today. Golding links the incident to the idea which he is conveying to communicate to us that without the restrictions and structure in place in our world today, the human race would quickly descend into our original nature of savagery.

The important incident which changed the course of events was Simons conversation with the Lord of the Flies and his death following that. The incident is a corner in the book as it is the first time which Golding spells out the irony of the beast and we are left with dramatic irony throughout the rest of the novel. Simon, one of the older boys on the island, and the notably smarter of the group, ventures in the jungle covering the island alone. He stumbles across a clearing and watches as Jack and his hunters chase and kill an injured pig within an unsatisfiable blood lust lingering in their eyes. Their “urge to twist and kill was over-mastering” and Simon watched as they smeared the blood of their kill on their faces, indulging in their victim. This is a small sign by Golding of blood and violence which follows the boy’s death. Simon falls into a delusional trance and begins to have an imaginary conversation with the Pig Head that the hunters left as a gift for “the beast”. It refers to itself as “the Lord of the Flies”. This is a deliberate insight from Golding as the Lord of the Flies also known as Beelzebub, means the devil. The devil which is only a fragment of the boy’s imagination yet their whole way of life and actions are determined by the fear and domination the devil in their minds has upon them. Simon realizes this as he says “Maybe there’s a beast… Maybe it’s only us”. Yet despite Simons new-found knowledge, when he rushes out of the jungle to share this with the rest of the boys, he interrupts them as they feast on rich meat and dance around the fire. They mistake him as the beast running at them in a brutal attack and proceed to kill him mercilessly. In this deadly incident of cruelty, the irony that Simon figured out the problem of the beast and yet he literally became the beast. “Fancy thinking the beast was something you could hunt and kill” was the words of the Lord of the Flies only moments before Simons death where he became the beast in the boy’s eyes and yet he was killed with no mercy. The boys never heard what he was going to tell them, so as a reader, we are left knowing what is causing the havoc on the island but are left to watch in suspense and the boys live in the dark from their own situation. This technique used by Golding is mimicking his own situation as many others of the time, in the dark, not knowing if he would live to be old or die in a nuclear attack of the Cold War. This incident not only causes a dramatic change in events which alters the course of events throughout the rest of the book, it gives us further insight into Golding’s state of mind at the time of the writing.

The incident of Simons conversation with the Lord of the Flies and his death following that helped us further understand Golding’s overall idea of humans original nature of savagery and without the boundaries of modern society, the human race would quickly descend into a race of violence and anarchy. Golding is using the boys as an Allegory of the larger outside world and he uses the small sconces and the characters to portray larger effects of the small actions the boys perform on Golding’s small stage of the world. The death of Simon, the intelligent and insightful character, developed by Golding, shows the “end of innocence” and the beginning of the “darkness of man’s heart” awakening in the boys. The boys on the island “did everything the adults would do” yet it still “went wrong”. They tried to establish a small-scale civilization but they quickly overruled the little rules which they had to roam as units of savages, killing and shedding all prior civilized properties they once had. Golding is intervening the Allegory of the boys on the island as a small-scale world to mimic the effects that the lack of rules would play havoc in our larger scale world. The death of Simon marks the beginning of the spiral into savagery for the boys and without any consequences of their actions, the boys fall deeper still into a world where murder and violence are accepted and almost becomes a day-to-day occurrence. Golding is also using Simons character to represent everything that is logical and sensible on the island and in the world. When he is killed, all that he means and does in the small society of the boys dies with him. When they first arrive on the island, Ralph becomes the chief and uses the conch to get attention but before long, the boys begin to challenge to authority and with ramifications of their actions, power slips out from under Ralph and the conch. This is seen in many situations in the real world, where power-hungry dominants have caused an uprising against them by their people.

I believe that Golding’s purpose with his novel, Lord of the Flies, was to create a story which a reader would follow along and place themselves in the desperate situation faced by the boys to try to warn the human race that they could easily be facing a race of ravished savages once known as humankind if we proceeded to disregard our rules and structure.

In conclusion, the important incident of Simons discovery and death unleash a deadly chain of events which help gives us as a reader further insight into Golding’s intentions with the novel and help us grasp the overall Allegory that without the structured civilization of today, human race would follow in the footsteps of the boys into a life of violence and savagery. The novel was written at a highly tense and nervous time in the worlds history, the two new formed superpowers of the world, and holders of mass destruction nuclear weapons, USA and the USSR were at each others throats. Golding, in concern of another war with the capacity to ruin the world, expressed his deep feelings of anticipation and anger for the world but placing the boys on the island as an Allegory of the outside world. As the boys fell into anarchy, he feared the world would follow not far behind. I believe that Golding was trying to warn the human race of the shortcomings and destruction another war would have on us, he uses characters to represent the personality types which lead to the disagreements in the world, and the course of events to portray how much influence a small incident can have on the rest of society.